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FACTS - INSIDE T. REX

  • Tyrannosaurus Rex had the largest brain volume of all dinosaurs.

  • Tyrannosaurus Rex had the best nose of all meat-eating dinosaurs.

  • Tyrannosaurus Rex could have been a night time killer.                          

  • Every human brain has a reptilian brain within it which controls the body's vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, body temperature and balance.

  • Emus, Ostriches and Cassowaries are the closet living relatives to Dinosaurs.

  • In the last 110 years, there have been a total of 46 Tyrannosaurus Rexs found of which only three are more than 50% complete.

  • Ostriches have the largest eyes of any land animal, measuring 5 centimeter in diameter.

  • Raptor’s eyes are so big, there’s little room left in the skull for eye muscles – so to look around – the bird has to turn its whole head.

  • Tyrannosaurus Rex eyeballs were somewhere between three and four inches in diameter.

  • Eagles can see up to 13 times sharper than humans.

  • One of the loudest man-made sounds is created by the space shuttle lifting off. It will generate sounds at an incredible 215 dB. 

  • Male alligators living in the swamps around the Kennedy Space Centre think the sonic boom emitted by space shuttle is a rival male threatening their territory. The alligators reply with their own infrasonic roars which makes the water the dance on their backs.

  • Elephants can hear infrasonic sounds 10 km away. The tremors travel up the leg and are detected by the inner ear.  It’s possible Tyrannosaurus Rex and other dinosaurs used similar tactics.

  • Humans have about 12 million scent-detector cells in their noses versus 4 billion in bloodhounds.

FACTS - WALK LIKE A DINOSAUR

  • Dinosaurs moved like no living animals move today.

  • LiDAR can capture every millimetre of a crime scene such as a speck of blood, a mark on the victim’s body and vehicle break marks.

  • Dinosaur’s huge bodies would have left many footprints. Some of these footprints were fossilized and can still be seen throughout the world today.

  • Titanosaurs wiggled their hips while walking to lengthen their stride.  Longer strides would have saved the animal energy.

  • All meat eating dinosaurs were bipedal.

  • Baby Titanosaurs grew from the size of a small football to a 60 tonnes adult.

  • Dinosaurs probably evolved not from two-legged carnivores but from four-legged vegetarians.

  • The largest living animal that can gallop is a rhino.

  • It takes a locomotion computer program 86 million billion calculations to work out how a dinosaur moved.

  • Most dinosaurs were bipeds whereas most modern animals are quadrupeds.

  • Some dinosaurs may have hopped like a kangaroo.

FACTS - IN LIVING COLOR

  • The light from the synchrotron can burn 100 million times brighter than the sun.

  • Dinosaurs probably had excellent color and ultra-violet vision.

  • The first feathered dinosaur was called Sinosauropteryx and was discovered in China in 1996.

  • Feathers contain pigment-loaded sacs called melanosomes. In 2009, Scientists found that melanosomes survived for millions of years in fossil bird feathers. Scientists have now established the color patterns for Sinosauropteryx and Anchiornis dinosaurs.

  • Contrary to popular belief, chameleons don’t really change color to match the wallpaper.  Mostly they change color to communicate to other chameleons.

  • Some dinosaurs had four wings such as the Microraptor. Paleontologists believe four winged Dinosaurs came before two winged Dinosaurs.

  • The cassowary has been known to kill humans with slashing dagger like nail. In 2004, southern cassowaries were voted by the Guinness Book of World Records as the world’s most dangerous bird.

  • Cassowaries have powerful legs and feet that enable them to run up to 50 miles per hour and jump over a height of two meters.

  • Flamingos are pink from a pigment called carotene from the shrimp they eat.

  • Archaeopteryx was the first half dinosaur, half bird to be found with feathers and provided the evidence that some dinosaurs had evolved into birds.

  • Victorians used Turaco bird feathers to make dyes.

  • Dazzling blue and green butterflies have no color pigment. They get their color from their thin scales that splay light into beautiful colors.

  • The color of a bird’s feather is an indication of the bird’s health.

FACTS - T. REX TRAUMA

  • Crocodiles continuously replace their teeth and might go through as many as three thousand teeth in their lifetime. They are the only living reptiles to do this like their ancestors, the dinosaurs.

  • If you were in the jaws of an alligator and trying to get out, it would be like trying to lift a pickup truck off of yourself.

  • Dinosaurs were one of the most successful groups of animals that have ever lived, surviving 165 million years.

  • SUE is the largest, most complete and best preserved T. Rex in the world. 90% of her bones were discovered.

  • Dinosaurs were able to rapidly heal their broken bones within a few weeks. Unlike their relatives the reptiles that could take years to heal their injured bones.

  • Bone can sometimes heal stronger than it was before. It is the only tissue in the body that can actually become stronger after it heals.

  • Like tree stumps, dinosaur bones are marked with rings indicating their annual growth. You can read these rings and calculate the dinosaur’s age.

  • Sue is the oldest known T. Rex. She died at the ripe old age of 28. This was probably close to the upper limit of a T. Rex's life span.

  • Gators immune system can kill many fungi, viruses and bacteria without having prior exposure to them. It can kill up to 98% of the superbug, MRSA bacteria that is causing havoc in hospital around the world, killing thousands of patients and becoming more resistant to antibiotics. Within the gators immune system maybe the answer to resistant bacteria.

  • Dinosaurs suffered from brain problems too. The Gorgosaurus housed in the Children's Museum, Indianapolis had a massive brain tumor. The tumor would have caused it to lose its sense of balance. Without balance Gorgosaurus probably bashed into things, fell all the time breaking its bones and eventually dying from it.

FACTS - SUPER SIZE

  • Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest animals ever to live on land. They dominated ecosystems for more than 100 million years and were an extremely successful group of animals.

  • A large sauropod probably needed to eat a tonne of foliage every day. They used their long necks to feed over a wide area, both side to side and up and down. This would have allowed them to stand still while their necks did all the work, helping to conserve their energy.

  • Giraffes have an exceptionally strong heart with enlarged muscular walls to drive blood all the way up to their brain. With their high blood pressure, the trick is keeping their heads from exploding when they bend to graze. Luckily, giraffes have evolved valves in their necks and special vessels at the base of their brain to avoid an over load of blood to their brain.

  • One of the ways that enabled Sauropods to grow so big was having their neck and back bones full of holes. They had up to 90% air sac cavities in their honeycombed like bone giving them a much lighter body weight.

  • A bird’s lung can extract twice as much oxygen from the air as the same size mammalian lung. This is because birds not only have lungs but an intricate system of airsacs that store more air each time the bird inhales.

  • The highest-flying bird is the Eurasian crane that flies over the Himalaya Mountains at altitudes up to 32,800 feet (10,000 meters). That’s cruising altitude for jetliners!

  • Argentinosaurus, a 100-million-year-old dinosaur that, as far as we know, was the biggest land animal that ever lived. In life it was 40 meters long and weighed around 80 tonnes, about the weight of ten elephants.

  • Baby sauropods grew rapid from the size of a football into a 30-80 tonne adult. A 30-tonne Asian sauropod called mamenchisaurus grew at its peak, 2 tonnes a year. In comparison, an African elephant gains at most 200 kilograms in a year.

  • The Blue whale is the largest animal that has ever lived. Typically it weighs between 100 and 150 tonnes, but has been known to reach 190 tonnes.

  • How do whales manage to outgrow even the biggest dinosaurs? One factor is the buoyancy provided by seawater, which largely frees them from the constraints of gravity. They also benefit from having enormous quantities of protein-rich krill to eat, a high-quality food resource that is unparalleled on land. During the feeding season, a blue whale can swallow as much as 3.5 tonnes of krill daily.

FACTS - SKIN DEEP

  • Skin is the largest organ in our body. It has a surface area of around 2 square meters. Its thickness varies from 0.5mm on our eyelids to 4mm or more on the palms of our hands and the soles of our feet. In total, it accounts for around 16% of our body weight.

  • Using the skin to body weight ratio of 16% on the largest dinosaur ever, Argentinosaurus who weighs in at 80 tonnes. Its total skin weight works out to be 12.8 tonnes.

  • Reptiles cannot regulate their body temperature internally as humans do. Some reptiles change their body color to control their body temperature. They are darker in the morning to maximize heat absorption and then throughout the day they become lighter to reduce heat absorption.

  • The skin of a reptile is different from the skin of a mammal in that it doesn’t grow as the animal grows. When we get bigger with age, our skin grows with us. But reptile skin has a limited capacity for growth. Thus, when a reptile outgrows the skin it's in, it simply sheds the outer layer and starts again.

  • Birds record their stress levels as lines found going across a bird's feather shaft. The lines are caused by either stress in a bird's environment or poor nutrition.

  • Like all reptiles and birds, all dinosaurs laid eggs too. Dinosaur eggs were first found in France in 1869, but it was the Gobi desert expedition in 1922 led by Roy Chapman Andrews that brought worldwide awareness that dinosaurs laid eggs.

  • Dinosaur eggshells were brittle like those of modern birds. Hard shells have the best chance of fossilizing unlike their relatives the reptiles that lay leathery eggshells.

  • Dinosaur eggs were no bigger than the size of a small football. There are two main shapes of dinosaur eggs spherical and elongated. Sauropods lay spherical eggs and Theropods lay elongated shaped eggs.

  • Dinosaurs appear to have been great parents. Increasing evidence supports this such as the Oviraptor fossil found in Mongolia sitting on top of its nest, perhaps, protecting its eggs from a possible stand storms that smothered them all in the end. This suggests that birds caring for their young was a trait adopted from their ancestors, the Dinosaurs.

  • Hundreds, if not thousands, of female Titanosaurs gathered to lay clusters of eggs in an area called Auca Mahuevo, Neuquen, Argentina. Thousands of fossil eggshells were discovered in this site suggest that Titanosaurs returned possibly over many seasons to lay their eggs.

  • Hadrosaurs, were the bison of the Cretaceous. They roamed the land in enormous herds. Some herds were estimated to be over 10,000 animals.

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  • Stan’s Skull photo

    Stan’s Skull

    Dr. Manning begins to examine the skull of the second most complete fossil of a T. Rex ever...

    (03:01)
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